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All the pdfs of individual studies based on specific Core Motions are named following the same constant rule:

- Core A, B, C etc.
- Unique identification number (i.e. 3.1, 3.2, 4.1 and so on)

- Linear or organic (abbreviated as “lin” and “org”)

- Number of drums (abbreviated as 1c for one drum, 2c for two and so on)

(For example: core-F-1.1-lin-2c.pdf)


All the other studies, listed under “misc. studies” and consisting of more than one Core Motion combined or of none, are named arbitrarily.


PLEASE NOTE: The serial numbers on the heading of each of the studies based on specific Core Motions are in no way to be intended as progressive, and their only function is that of reference and identification of the individual studies.


In virtue of the non-linearity of this collection of studies, the navigation is facilitated by a series of search filters, each applying one of the categories described in chapters five to eight. The dropdown filters are organised as follows:

Plus an additional button to select a list of studies suitable as warm-ups.


In this way one can instantly display all the available studies for three congas, for example, or all those based on Core Motion F; or all the linear studies on Core motion A for two congas, and so on.


  • Studies for two congas positioned in the classic diagonal configuration will be by necessity asymmetrical; however, there are other studies designed for the two peripheral congas of a set of three or four, and other which can be performed on any two congas in any configuration, and these are generally symmetric.

  • Studies on Core B, C, D and F will all be linear.

  • Studies on Core A and E can be both linear and organic.

  • Both linear and organic studies can be either symmetric or asymmetric.

  • For ease of readability, sticking is only specified on the first permutations of a series where it remains unvaried, and it reappears whenever there is an alteration, after which the same rule is applied. To reiterate, where sticking is not specified in any single line it means that it is the same as the last exercise in the series where it has been.


Congas can be arranged in a broad range of configurations, but for practical reasons the way the drums’ relative pitches are organised in these studies is based on a common set-up of high conga in the centre, tumbadora on the right (for right-hand players), mid conga on the left and a lower tumbadora in front. All studies, be them for two, three or four drums are based on this configuration, and any adaptation to different set-ups will have to take that into account. There are no studies for five congas in the present version of this method.


An additional information on the heading of each study is a top-view graphic picture of the drums, with a two-colour scheme. This is to give an immediate visual description of how many drums are employed in the study, but it also depicts which hand will engage on which drum. For example, in a study for three congas, this picture:

will tell you at a glance that in this series the left drum will be played only with the left hand, and the right with the right; meanwhile a study headed by this picture:

will engage both hands on both of the lateral drums.


Studies designed specifically to be played on the two side drums of a set of three, four or even five, are inherently symmetrical, and are thus depicted:

Meanwhile, this particular picture:

indicates a series that can be performed on any pair of drums of a set of two, tree or more. In these cases each hand is confined to one drum, and the studies of this category consist generally of exercises in either independence and unison playing.

The six Core Motions have been created for practical purposes, as they allow us to divide the exercises in groups and to focus on specific aspects of the instrument’s technique; however, they are not geometrical absolutes and, like anything musical, they must be approached with a flexible mind. Whenever more than one Core Motions is employed in a certain study or exercise, only the predominant one is listed at the beginning of the page, unless the study is deliberately making a mixed use of two or more Core Motions, or of none. All these studies are grouped under the search filter “misc. studies”.

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